Immune System DeficiencyThe immune system consists of a set of complex processes inherent in our body to defend against foreign substances or harmful pathogens and deficient cells in the body.
The main triggers of disease are viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites (worms, for example).
In general, we distinguish the innate immune system (nonspecific) and adaptive immune system (specific).
The innate immune system includes barriers such as skin and mucous membranes, inflammatory reactions to foreign bodies or infections or blood components that can destroy diseased cells. One of the main differences in the innate immune system in relation to the adaptive immune system is the fact that the innate system is able to make an effective first contact with a threat.
With the adaptive immune system, specific, however, there must be a first contact - for example with a virus or a foreign substance to the body. Specific cells then form against these foreign substances (antigens, in medical jargon), which release immune substances (antibodies) to destroy the threat or who are able to directly kill foreign cells. The main advantage of the adaptive immune system is its''memory''SBB. Thanks to the memory cells, the body can react quickly and effectively against the antigen, even after several years. This is known as immunity against the corresponding risk.
The innate and acquired immune systems work together and complement each other in defense of the body.
The terms''low''or''immune compromised immune''confusing but are often used to refer to children and adults who develop a recurrent infections, especially in the upper respiratory tract. For these people, it would be more appropriate to talk about susceptibility to infection as immune deficiency, since the existence of that impairment is difficult to prove - unless there is actually a pathological failure of the immune system .
Susceptibility to infections occur both among healthy individuals and in those already ill. There are several risk groups: children, smokers or patients with chronic lung or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at particular risk.
These recurrent infections may (even if they do not have long term consequences) be very unpleasant and affect quality of life of the individual, but also cause social problems, such as absences from school or work , a stigmatization of children as a result of fear of contamination of other parents or a decrease in social contacts.
Important: Individuals susceptible to infection usually have an intact immune system and could benefit from immunostimulation. Only people with normal immune systems can benefit from a non-specific immunostimulation!
It should clearly differentiate a susceptibility to infection (immune deficiency) and immunodeficiency. In the case of immune deficiency, the restriction of immune function can be demonstrated and assessed through examinations. We know a number of congenital and acquired immunodeficiency (AIDS or adverse drug reactions, for example). The people involved often fall sick and can, from relatively mild infections, develop severe illness, sometimes involving life-threatening.
Patients with specific immunodeficiency can not benefit from a non-specific immunostimulation by any drug. Depending on the cause of immune deficiency, the only targeted treatment prescribed by a specialist can provide effective protection.